Reverse Seasonal Affective Disorder: People who get SAD in the Summer

Neuroscience

By: Lina Jamis, 2nd year student in the Anatomy Graduate Program

face-110104_640

Summertime sadness. (Image credit: Pixabay)

Snow-lovers rejoice—winter is coming!

And no, this isn’t an allusion to Game of Thrones. With the end of Daylight Savings, the days are becoming darker earlier, which for some can mean the onset of the winter blues. The medical term for this is Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), a condition caused by a mélange of changes in our biological clocks, serotonin levels, and melatonin production, all of which affect our mood.

While many of us are familiar with SAD, there are, in fact, people that get SAD in reverse. For a small group of people, the dark days of winter don’t elicit depression, but renewed vigor and improved mood.

Reverse seasonal affective disorder affects less than 1/10th of overall SAD cases, according to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, but just like winter-onset SAD, reverse seasonal affective disorder returns every year at about the same time. While winter SAD is linked to a lack of sunlight, it is thought that summer SAD is due to the reverse—possibly too much sunlight, which also lead to modulations in melatonin production. Another theory is that people might stay up later in the summer, throwing their sensitive circadian rhythms in for a loop. Interestingly, summer SAD and winter SAD seem to be prevalent in areas that are particularly prone to warmer summers. In other words, people in the southern U.S. tend to experience summer SAD more so than those in the north (and vice versa).

Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger that serves to protect the brain. However, more importantly, melatonin’s immediate precursor is the neurotransmitter serotonin, a major player in regulating mood. By reducing melatonin production, SAD increases the risk for depression and other mood disorders.

hsph_scheme-of-retina-to-melatonin

Research also suggests that high temperatures might also play a role in reverse SAD. Notable differences between summer and winter SAD are that summer SAD individuals may typically feel manic, whereas those with winter SAD lack energy. Georgetown University psychiatrist and professor, Norman Rosenthal, who first described and coined the term Seasonal Affective Disorder, notes that the drop in temperature can be calming for those people, who might otherwise find the summer heat oppressive and agitating.

girl-320939_640

(Image credit: Pixabay)

Unfortunately, there are few studies devoted to understanding reverse SAD, likely because it is less well-known than its counterpart. In addition, individuals who might be affected by reverse SAD may be misdiagnosed with major depression, anxiety, or dysthymia. Because it is fairly esoteric compared to winter SAD, many people who become depressed in the summer may not realize they have SAD. They may simply think of their bouts of depression as new events rather than parts of a pattern. Researchers think it may also have a genetic component; more than two-thirds of patients with SAD have a relative with a major mood disorder.

So next time your friends decline an offer to go sun bathing or cavorting in the heat of July, consider that they might not actually be flaky, but suffering from what hipster diva Lana Del Rey calls “Summertime Sadness.” As the next few months go by, those who experience reverse SAD will take comfort in knowing that the winter months can bring nothing but bliss with the gloriousness of gray skies, 15-hours of darkness, and bone-chilling winds.

On the other hand, I can be found inside. With a book. By a fireplace. Where it’s warm. Really warm.

 —

Screen Shot 2014-04-07 at 10.25.37 PMLina Jamis is a 2nd year student in the Anatomy Graduate Program. She works in Dr. Christopher Yengo’s lab studying molecular motors and human deafness. Lina enjoys ultimate Frisbee, Crossfit, and general nerdiness.

 

Also see Caitlin Millett’s earlier post on SAD during the winter months here.

One thought on “Reverse Seasonal Affective Disorder: People who get SAD in the Summer

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s